Practice of Safe Blood Transfusion


By Dr. (Prof.) R. N. Makroo,
M.B.B.S.; D.I.B.T., M.D. Director & Sr. Consultant,
Transfusion Medicine, Molecular Biology & Transplant Immunology


A one stop source of in-depth and detailed information on the subject of Transfusion Medicine






Lov Verma (Secretary)
Government of India Ministry of Health &
Welfare Department of AIDS Control National AIDS Control Organisation
New Delhi-110001


Dr. Jagdish Prasad (Director General of Health Service)
Government of India Ministry of Health &
Family Welfare Directorate General of Health Service
Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi-110108


Dr. Prathap C Reddy (Chairman)
Apollo Hospitals Group






Dr. (Prof.) R. N. Makroo
Director & Sr. Consultant,
Department of Transfusion Medicine,
Molecular Biology & Transplant Immunology
Indraprastha Apollo Hospitals, New Delhi


Transfusion Medicine is an arm of medical science that is evolving each day. It came into existence with the landmark discovery of ABO blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in 1900. Though significant advancements have been made in medical science over the past few decades, Transfusion Medicine in India has unfortunately not kept pace with these advances across the board. However, in the recent past Transfusion Services in the country are becoming more advanced and sophisticated owing to adoption of latest technology at many centers. Immunohematology itself has cropped up into an important branch of Transfusion Medicine, wherein the understanding of cell membranes, genes, and molecular biology, combined with fundamental knowledge of the immune system is extrapolated into laboratory bench serology to make safe blood available for patients.
Having being associated with the Indian transfusion arena for over 3 decades, I have always felt a need for a standard textbook from authors in this part of the globe that embodies our knowledge and experiences. The 1st edition of ‘Principles & Practice of Transfusion Medicine’ is an endeavor towards providing transfusionists and clinicians an insight into the fascinating world of transfusion. As I penned this book, deliberate efforts were made to keep the text simple and lucid. Most information has been provided point wise in a reader friendly format. ‘Questions for Self Assessment’ have been incorporated at the end of each chapter for the benefit of the readers. The book lays emphasis on “Blood Safety” and provides an in-depth analysis of methods that can be employed to ensure a safe blood supply. The importance of appropriate and rational use of blood has been well highlighted. The book is suitable for medical graduate and post graduation students, medical laboratory technicians, and even for independent and distance learning courses for Blood Bank officers.
I am highly indebted to Dr. Prathap C. Reddy, Chairman, Apollo Hospitals Group for his ever inspiring attitude and encouragement extended to me.
I am also thankful to all my colleagues and friends for their never ending inspiration & support, especially to Dr. Aakanksha Bhatia & Dr. Mohit Chowdhry for their invaluable assistance in penning this book. I am grateful to my family who has always stood by me in thick and thin.
I dedicate this book to my parents who always have and will continue to shower their blessings on me.
Dr. (Prof.) R. N. Makroo


CHAPTER 1:-   Historical Overview of Transfusion Medicine
CHAPTER 2:-   Physiology of Blood and Basic Principles of Immunohaematology
CHAPTER 3:-   ABO Blood Group System
CHAPTER 4:-   The Rh Blood Group System
CHAPTER 5:-   Other Blood Group System
CHAPTER 6:-   Antiglobulin Test
CHAPTER 7:-   Antibody Screening and Identification
CHAPTER 8:-   Compatibility Testing (Pre Transfusion Testing)
CHAPTER 9:-   Blood Collection and Processing
CHAPTER 10:- Preservation and Storage of Blood
CHAPTER 11:- Blood Component Preparation and Therapy
CHAPTER 12:- Apheresis (Haemapheresis)
CHAPTER 13:- Transfusion Practice in Clinical Medicine
CHAPTER 14:- Plasma Fractionation and Plasma Protein Solution (PPS)
CHAPTER 15:- Transfusion Transmitted Diseases
CHAPTER 16:- Blood Transfusion Reactions
CHAPTER 17:- Haemolytic Disease of New Born (HDN)
CHAPTER 18:- Quality Assurance In Blood Transfusion Services
CHAPTER 19:- Cellular Therapies
CHAPTER 20:- SpecialMethods
CHAPTER 21:- Legislation on Blood and Blood Products
CHAPTER 22:- Standards for Blood Banks & Accreditation
CHAPTER 23:- Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT)
CHAPTER 24:- Major Histocompatibility Complex





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