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THE PHARMA REVIEW (JAN FEB 2019)

Nutritional Recommendations for Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

Dr. Anita Saxena & Dr. Amit Gupta

Introduction:

The burden of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing rapidly worldwide. Hypertension, diabetes, obesity and use of nephrotoxic drugs are the main causes of CKD. Worldwide 1,783,000 patients were receiving treatment for end stage renal disease (ESRD), in the year 2004, of which 77% were on dialysis and 23% had a functioning renal transplant (RT). The number is increasing at a rate of 7% every year. Once kidney function is completely lost the stage is called end stage renal disease (ESRD) and patient requires renal replacement therapy (RRT) either as maintenance dialysis (artificial kidney) or renal transplant to keep life going. The average incidence of ESRD in developing countries is 150 per million population (pmp), which is lower than what is reported in the developed world. An Indian population-based study determined the crude and age-adjusted ESRD incidence rates at 151 and 232 per million populations, respectively. If validated in other parts of this region, it would imply that about 220,000275,000 new patients need RRT every year in this part of the world. In India, about 55,000 patients are on dialysis and the dialysis population is growing at the rate of 1020% annually. In India, chronic kidney disease is the eighth leading cause of death. As per recent Indian Council of Medical Research data, prevalence of diabetes in Indian adult population has risen to 7.1% and the reported prevalence of hypertension in the adult population today is 17%. Both of these account for 4060% cases of CKD.

 

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